branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of conditions and disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system (and its subdivisions, the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system); including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. Neurological practice relies heavily on the field of neuroscience, which is the scientific study of the nervous system.
- SPINAL CORD INJURIES (SCI):
usually begin with a blow that fractures or dislocates your vertebrae, the bone disks that make up your spine. Most injuries don’t cut through your spinal cord. Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerve parts that carry signals
In the majority of cases the damage results from physical trauma such as car accident, gunshots, falls, or sports injuries, but it can also result from no traumatic causes such as infection
Cases of spinal cord injuries
Depending on the level of neurologic deficit and associated injuries, the patient may require admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), neurosurgical observation unit, or general ward.
A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to your brain is disturbed.
Like all organs, the brain needs a constant supply of blood that contains oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
If the blood supply is restricted or stopped, brain cells will begin to die, which can lead to brain damage that often results in paralysis.
After a stroke, you may need rehabilitation (rehab) to help you recover. Rehab can include working with speech, physical, and occupational therapists:
- Speech therapy helps people who have problems producing or understanding speech.
- Physical therapy uses exercises to help you relearn movement and coordination skills you may have lost because of the stroke.
- Occupational therapy focuses on improving daily activities, such as eating, drinking, dressing, bathing, reading, and writing.
- HEAD INJURIES:
A severe head injury can cause brain damage. The brain’s surface can tear or bruise as it bumps against the skull, damaging blood vessels and nerves.
Paralysis can occur if a part of the brain that controls specific muscles is damaged during a severe head injury.
Damage to the left side of the brain can cause paralysis on the right side of the body, and damage to the right side of the brain can cause paralysis on the left side of the body.
- Restoring muscle strength and joint stability
- Reducing muscle spasms, contractures, stiff joints and associated pain
- Improving balance (in sitting and standing), co-ordination and normal patterns of movement
- Re-education of walking
- Re-training of functional tasks, for example sit-to-standing, turning in bed, activities of daily living
- Reducing the risk of falls
- Restoring independence and quality of life
- Training and teaching of family members / careers involved with the rehabilitation process, for example manual handling, bed / bath / chair / toilet transfers, positioning techniques and exercise programs to maintain muscle strength, co-ordination and flexibility of soft tissues
- MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition where nerve fibres in the spinal cord become damaged by the immune system (the body’s natural defence against infection and illness).
The immune system mistakenly attacks a substance called myelin, which surrounds nerve fibres and helps with the transmission of nerve signals.
In MS, the myelin around the nerve fibres becomes damaged, which disturbs the messages coming to and from the brain. This can result in paralysis.
help you achieve and maintain physical functioning, safety, quality of life, and independence
The specific interventions that your PT uses will depend on your symptoms and disease course, but a successful physical therapy program for a person with MS will:
- Educate you and your caregivers (family and/or friends) about physical symptoms of MS and what you can do to alleviate these symptoms
- Develop an individualized exercise program to address symptoms and maximize health and function
- Introduce aids and adaptive equipment for home, office, and automobile to enhance mobility and functionality
- Design physical therapy interventions to address specific impairments
- Identify community resources that support goals of physical therapy
- Motor neuron disease:
Is a rare, incurable condition. Over time, the nerves in the brain and spine gradually lose function (neurodegeneration).
Nerve cells known as motor neurones are affected by MND. Motor neurones are specialised nerve cells that control voluntary muscle movements, such as walking. MND causes progressive muscle weakness, which eventually leads to total body paralysis.
- Support and advice
- Exercise and fatigue management
- Soft tissue and joint management
- Improve balance
- Improve movement patterns and prevent secondary compensations
- Monitor changes
- Seating and posture advice
- Advice regarding wheelchairs and assistive technology
- Chest and respiratory support
- Teaching of support workers and carers (manual handling, stretches, exercise, and chest care)